For a long time, remote sensing of Earth has successfully provided the forestry industry with relevant and reliable data; it is indispensable for the implementation of management planning, state forest inventory, implementation of fire prevention and forest pathology monitoring, state monitoring of forest reforestation, and environmental monitoring of specially protected natural area landscapes for biodiversity conservation. The application of satellite imagery and its technical characteristics is determined by the requirements of forest management instructions approved by order No. 516 of the Federal Forestry Agency dated 12/12/2011.
Modern methods of satellite data thematic processing allow not only an expert visual evaluation of forest areas, but also the use of high-precision automated analysis methods, taking into account the spectral, geometrical and textural characteristics of ground objects. This makes it possible to obtain data on the types of forest vegetation, its species composition, and age. Also, these methods can significantly increase the data processing speed, which allows you to create a continuous monitoring system of forest use.
The interpretation results can be used to make changes to the forest survey database directly in industry-specific geo-information systems, such as GIS TOPOL-L. The important function is the availability of well-functioning web-GIS technologies to provide end users not only with the materials for a satellite survey, but also the results of their analysis in the form of maps, analyses and reports.
The tasks to be completed by means of remote sensing in the forestry industry include:
- updating forest management materials;
- a comprehensive assessment of forest resources in the interests of loggers;
- a comprehensive assessment of forest resources for the benefit of executive power;
- monitoring the use of forest areas, rapid detection of violations of forest law, and estimation of damages;
- real-time fire monitoring of forest areas, identifying forest areas affected by fires and the extent of damage;
- state forest pest monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of sanitary measures;
- forest regeneration state monitoring;
- comprehensive environmental monitoring of the status and dynamics of specially protected natural areas.
In addressing the above problems, the following technology features can be used:
- the building of a high-precision orthophotomap with a spatial resolution of 0.3 meters;
- conducting real-time surveying, including stereo photography of any area within Russia;
- the use of long-term data archives for the analysis of changes in the main forest vegetation characteristics and the natural landscape as a whole.